Unilateral or bilateral, two eyes can have successively, progressive vision decline, due to lens cortical opacity caused by different parts of the lens refractive power is different, there can be glare, or monocular diplopia, myopic degree increased, clinical senile cataract is divided into cortical, nuclear and subcystic three types.
1. Cortical cataract
The crystal cortex is mainly characterized by grayish white turbidity, and its development process can be divided into four stages: initial stage, immature stage, mature stage, and overripening stage.
2. Nuclear cataracts
Crystal opacity namely embryonic nuclear position began to emerge from the lens center density increase, gradually increase and slowly into the surrounding extension, early with pale yellow, with the turbidity, color gradually deepen such as deep yellow, dark tan, nuclear density increases, refractive index increases, patients often complained of presbyopia or myopia increase, early peripheral cortex are transparent, therefore, in the dark pupil loose big improve eyesight, and under strong light miosis vision loss instead, so don't wait for cortex completely cloudy that surgery was performed.
3. Subcapsular cataract
The opacity is located in the subcapsular cortex of the lens. If it is located in the optic axis area, it affects vision in the early stage.
At present, both at home and abroad are in the stage of exploration and research. For some early cataract, the condition will slow down after clinical medication, and the vision will also be slightly improved. The early progression to maturity of cataract is a long process, and it may naturally stop at a certain stage of development without seriously affecting the vision. Early cataract can be taken orally vitamin C, vitamin B2, vitamin E, etc., also can use some drugs to delay the development of the disease. Usually some patients with metaphase cataract, the degree of vision and lens opacity can also be improved to some extent after medication. But for mature cataract, drug therapy has no practical significance.
2. Surgical treatment
(1) Cataract phacoemulsification is a new type of cataract surgery developed at home and abroad in recent years. The nucleus of the lens was shattered by ultrasound to make it chyloid, and then aspirated together with the cortex. The posterior capsule of the lens was retained after surgery, and the atrial iOL could be implanted simultaneously. Senile cataract develops to vision less than 0.3, or the degree and location of cataract significantly affects or interferes with visual function. Patients hope to have good visual quality, that is, phacoemulsification cataract extraction is feasible. Its advantages are small incision, less tissue damage, short operation time, quick visual recovery.
(2) The incision of extracapsular cataract extraction was smaller than that of intracapsular extraction. The cloudy nucleus of the lens was expelled and the cortex was sucked out, but the posterior capsular was left. The posterior capsule is retained and the posterior chamber intraocular lens can be implanted at the same time. Visual function can be restored immediately after surgery. Therefore, extracapsular cataract extraction has become a routine cataract operation.