Glaucoma is a group of diseases characterized by atrophy and depression of the optic nipple, visual field defect and visual loss. Pathologic hypertension and insufficient blood supply of optic nerve are the primary risk factors for glaucoma. Tolerance of optic nerve to pressure damage is also related to the occurrence and development of glaucoma. Obstruction of any part of the aqueous circulation pathway can lead to the pathological changes caused by elevated IOP, but some patients present with normal iOP glaucoma. Glaucoma is one of the three leading causes of blindness in humans, affecting 1% of the total population and 2% after age 45. In clinic, glaucoma is divided into primary, secondary and congenital glaucoma according to etiology, atrial Angle and intraocular pressure.
Secondary glaucoma is caused by some eye diseases or systemic diseases that interfere with the normal aqueous circulation, such as glaucoma caused by eye trauma, neovascular glaucoma, iridocyclitis secondary glaucoma, glucocorticoid glaucoma, etc., and the causes are relatively clear. Congenital glaucoma is caused by abnormal embryonic development and congenital variation of atrial Angle.